A Typical Lesson
A typical lesson has four phases:
- A warm-up
- One or more instructional activities
- The lesson synthesis
- A cool-down
The first event in every lesson is a warm-up. A warm-up either:
- helps students get ready for the day’s lesson, or
- gives students an opportunity to strengthen their number sense or procedural fluency.
A warm-up that helps students get ready for today’s lesson might serve to remind them of a context they have seen before, get them thinking about where the previous lesson left off, or preview a calculation that will happen in the lesson so that the calculation doesn't get in the way of learning new mathematics.
A warm-up that is meant to strengthen number sense or procedural fluency asks students to do mental arithmetic or reason numerically or algebraically. It gives them a chance to make deeper connections or become more flexible in their thinking.
Four instructional routines frequently used in warm-ups are Number Talks, Notice and Wonder, Which One Doesn’t Belong, and True or False. In addition to the mathematical purposes, these routines serve the additional purpose of strengthening students’ skills in listening and speaking about mathematics.
Once students and teachers become used to the routine, warm-ups should take 5–10 minutes. If warm-ups frequently take much longer than that, the teacher should work on concrete moves to more efficiently accomplish the goal of the warm-up.
At the beginning of the year, consider establishing a small, discreet hand signal students can display to indicate they have an answer they can support with reasoning. This signal could be a thumbs up, or students could show the number of fingers that indicate the number of responses they have for the problem. This is a quick way to see if students have had enough time to think about the problem and keeps them from being distracted or rushed by classmates' raised hands.
After the warm-up, lessons consist of a sequence of one to three classroom activities. The activities are the heart of the mathematical experience and make up the majority of the time spent in class.
An activity can serve one or more of many purposes.
- Provide experience with a new context.
- Introduce a new concept and associated language.
- Introduce a new representation.
- Formalize a definition of a term for an idea previously encountered informally.
- Identify and resolve common mistakes and misconceptions that people make.
- Practice using mathematical language.
- Work toward mastery of a concept or procedure.
- Provide an opportunity to apply mathematics to a modeling or other application problem.
The purpose of each activity is described in its Activity Narrative. Read more about how activities serve these different purposes in the section on Design Principles.
After the activities for the day are done, students should take time to synthesize what they have learned. This portion of class should take 5–10 minutes before students start working on the cool-down. Each lesson includes a Lesson Synthesis section that assists the teacher with ways to help students incorporate new insights gained during the activities into their big-picture understanding. Teachers can use this time in any number of ways, including posing questions verbally and calling on volunteers to respond, asking students to respond to prompts in a written journal, asking students to add on to a graphic organizer or concept map, or adding a new component to a persistent display like a word wall.
Each lesson includes a cool-down task to be given to students at the end of the lesson. Students are meant to work on the cool-down for about 5 minutes independently and turn it in. The cool-down serves as a brief formative assessment to determine whether students understood the lesson. Students’ responses to the cool-down can be used to make adjustments to further instruction.